Conceptual Music (Art) as an umbrella term for a number of tendencies.
The "New" Notation. In the '60s, many composers felt the need of a "non-traditional" notation to better communicate their music. Proportional notation uses lines of various the lengths to suggest the duration of sound in a proportional way. Sometimes pitches are only approximately marked on a stave, without using accidentals or even note heads. Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki wrote an influential work, Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima in which he uses proportional notation. Bruno Bartolozzi's book"New Sounds for Woodwind and Erhard Karkoschka's book Notation in New Music were among the first works discussing multiphonics and the emergence of new music symbols.
The need for a "new" notation is related both to aleatory music and improvisation and to the advent of new, extended instrumental and vocal techniques. William Albright - Amerithon
Earl Brown has a group of pieces (Folio and Four Systems ) in which he pushed far the limits and the consequences of such notation about one decade before it became "popular".
Sylvano Bussotti, his scores and their lack of instructions or explanatory notes.
Gyorgy Ligeti's Aventures as an example of new notation and extended techniques.
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